Safety is a somewhat subjective subject. Marijuana has been used by many women during pregnancy without complication, but this does not mean that there is no potential risk. Marijuana is rated class C by the FDA for use during pregnancy1.
Studies on animals show adverse effect and toxicity on fetus.
No adequate and well controlled studies done on pregnant women.
Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
Safefetus.com reports the following potential risks for marijuana use during pregnancy:
The active ingredient delta -9-THC crosses human placenta Suggested possible association between heavy marijuana use in pregnancy and preterm deliveries dysfunctional labor, precipitate labor, meconium staining.
Regular marijuana use in pregnancy is possibly associated with in utero growth retardation.
Possible association between heavy marijuana use and congenital defects mainly eye defects.
Off springs of regular marijuana users may have alteration in neurobehavior such as tremors, irritability, high-pitched cry without effects on mental or motor development.
In utero marijuana exposure may be related to development of childhood malignancies mainly leukemia and there is doubtful association with chromosomal damage.
To compare, another commonly prescribed anti-emetic is Phenergan2, which is also a Class C with the following risks:
Crosses human placenta.
No adequate human data but suggested possible association with cardiovascular defects in 1st trimester exposure.
reported to cause neonatal respiratory depression and neonatal platelet dysfunction when used in labor.
Recent studies indicate that when other factors are controlled for, marijuana does not cause low birth weight or preterm labor:
BACKGROUND: According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 4.6% of American women reported use of an illicit drug during pregnancy. Previous studies on illicit drug use during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes showed inconsistent results. METHODS: This population-based study included mothers who delivered live-born infants without birth defects between 1997 and 2004 and completed interviews for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (response rate 69%; n=5871). Prevalence of self-reported illicit drug use (specifically cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants) during pregnancy and its associations with demographic and social factors were assessed. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to study the associations of cannabis use with birth weight and gestational age. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported illicit drug use during pregnancy was 3.6% (standard error 0.24). Pregnant users of cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants were younger, had a lower level of education and lower household income, and were less likely to have used folic acid in the periconceptional period than nonusers. Illicit drug users were also more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. After adjustment for confounding, cannabis use was not associated with mean birth weight or gestational age or with low birth weight or preterm delivery. CONCLUSION: Women who report use of illicit drugs during pregnancy differ in demographic and socioeconomic background from nonusers. Reported cannabis use does not seem to be associated with low birth weight or preterm birth.26
Whether the potential risks are worth taking should be considered on a case by case basis, by comparing the risks to the benefits, preferably in consultation with a doctor.
What medical uses does marijuana have during pregnancy?
The most common reason marijuana is used in pregnancy is to control morning sickness, especially Hyperemesis gravidarum. Marijuana is a powerful anti-emetic and appetite stimulant (in place of synthetic anti-emetics). It is also used as a pain reliever (in place of synthetic pain relievers), a mood stabilizer (in place of a pharmaceutical mood stabilizer/anti depressant), and to ease stalled labors (in place of synthetic oxytocin).3
What historical uses has marijuana had during pregnancy?
For a list of historical medicinal uses in pregnancy, see this thread.
Does the fetus get high if the mother uses marijuana?
No, when the mother uses marijuana during pregnancy, the fetus does not get "high". Though it has been documented that delta-9-thc does cross the placenta, the metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-thc does not readily cross the placenta, and the fetus does not metabolize 11-nor-9-carboxy-thc into delta-9-thc as the mother does.
Three late-term (Gestational Days 146-151) rhesus monkeys were given 0.3 mg/kg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intravenously via the maternal radial vein to quantify the placental transfer and fetal disposition of THC, the major psychoactive component of marijuana. Simultaneous blood samples were obtained from a maternal uterine vein and an intraplacental artery at 0, 3, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min after dosing using an intraplacental cannulation technique. Samples of fetal plasma, spleen, testis, lung, brain, liver, bile, kidney, adrenals, thymus, and placenta were obtained at 180 min postdose. Samples were analyzed for THC and a major metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (11-nor), by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Peak plasma THC values were obtained 3 and 15 min after dosing in the mother (1419 ng/ml) and fetus (83 ng/ml), respectively. By 3 hr, maternal and fetal plasma THC levels were equal (37 ng/ml). Maternal plasma was sampled beyond 180 min at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postdose, times at which THC and 11-nor concentrations were either near or at the lower limit of sensitivity for the RIA (2 ng/ml). While maternal plasma 11-nor levels peaked at 1 hr (44 ng/ml), almost no 11-nor was detected in fetal plasma (less than 5 ng/ml). Fetal tissue concentrations of THC were 53 +/- 6 ng/g (SE) for brain and 114 +/- 10 ng/g for liver, while 11-nor was undetectable in placenta, fetal liver, and fetal brain. These data demonstrate that THC rapidly crosses the placenta and enters the fetus. The lack of 11-nor in fetal plasma and tissues suggests that this metabolite does not readily cross the placenta and that the fetus does not readily metabolize THC to 11-nor at this stage of development. A portion of this data was presented at the 1985 meeting of The American Society of Primatologists and at the 1986 meeting of The Teratology Society.4
Can I be tested during pregnancy without my knowledge/consent?
The short answer is no, with a few exceptions.
The long answer is this:
In 2000 there was a case before the U.S. Supreme Court called Ferguson v. City of Charleston. It came about due to drug testing without a warrant at a Charleston, S.C. hospital which was used to turn several mothers over to law enforcement. The Supreme Court ruled, with one dissenter, that these tests violated the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which protects against unreasonable search and seizure.
The government may dispense with the protections normally demanded under the Fourth Amendment prior to a search -- securing a warrant or having an individualized suspicion of criminal conduct -- only if the search falls within a "special needs" exception. To satisfy that exception, the governmental policy must be unrelated to law enforcement, and the person being searched must have a diminished expectation of privacy.5
What this means is that a hospital must have a reasonable belief that you are using an illegal substance before they test you, they cannot subject you to routine and random drug testing without your consent.
However, this does not mean that many doctors/hospitals do not still do random routine testing, in clear violation of the fourth amendment, nor does it stop them from hiding authorization to test you in fine print of legal documents you may sign while in the office/hospital. Make sure that you thoroughly read any and all documents you sign, because you may be giving them permission to do things you had not intended, not just drug testing. If you or your infant are tested randomly without a warrant and without reasonable expectations that you are using drugs and without your explicit permission, stand up for your legal rights and contact a lawyer.
If I test positive for marijuana, will my child(ren) be taken away?
There is no definitive answer to this question. The possibility does exist that if you or your infant/child test positive for marijuana, CPS will remove your children from your home, but it is not a guarantee. Whether a child will be removed depends mainly upon the feelings of the worker who is in charge of the case and the laws in that particular area. In many cases, instead of removal, a mother will be ordered to attend drug counseling and will be monitored for a period of time to ensure the use does not continue. In some cases, if marijuana is the only substance found (meaning no "hard drugs" are found), the worker will not care at all as long as the parent is found capable in all other areas. If you are concerned about the possibility, the safest course of action is to not use marijuana.
Is it safe to use marijuana while breastfeeding?
Safety is a somewhat subjective subject. Marijuana has been used by many women during breastfeeding without complication, but this does not mean that there is no potential risk.
The most common short term side effects of breastfeeding and using marijuana are drowsiness in the infant, issues with milk production, and an increased desire to suckle in the infant.
Another aspect of marijuana is its effect on appetite and feeding. In one study, Esther Fride of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem injected newborn mouse pups with a chemical that blocks the body's receptor sites for its endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. The pups had problems feeding. Some of the mice died and the survivors grew slower. Pups that were given the blocker and a supplemental dose of THC fed normally. This suggests that a baby fed by a lactating marijuana user might be more likely to have a healthy, well-regulated appetite.6
Separate from the direct, chemical effects of marijuana on a baby, use of marijuana may affect a mother's ability to be able to properly care for her baby. Maternal judgment may be impaired.
Any secondhand smoke the baby is exposed to increases the amount of the drug your baby receives. Also, because street drugs are rarely pure, marijuana may be laced with other drugs or substances that can also be harmful to the breastfeeding baby.
The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, will be stored in mom's fat tissues for long periods (weeks to months) and will build up in the body with continued use. Small to moderate secretion into breastmilk has been documented, and THC is concentrated in human milk. According to Hale, analysis of breastmilk from chronic heavy users indicated an eight-fold concentration in milk compared to mom's blood plasma, however the dose received by baby was insufficient to produce significant side effects. Studies have shown significant absorption and metabolism in infants, although long term effects have not been shown.
Marijuana can cause sleepiness in the baby, which can lead to slow weight gain and possibly slow overall development in the baby long term. In addition, babies whose mothers smoke marijuana regularly have a higher risk of SIDS.
Hale reports a possibility of decreased milk production. In animals, THC decreases the amount of milk produced by suppressing the production of prolactin and, possibly, by a direct action on the mammary glands.
There is significant brain growth occurring during a baby's first months of life; marijuana may alter brain cells. Animal studies (on babies whose mothers' milk contained THC) have shown that DNA and RNA metabolism may also be affected and the proteins needed for proper growth and development impaired.
After a breastfeeding mother uses marijuana, THC is evident in her baby's urine and stools (Perez-Reyes and Wall, 1982). Infants exposed to marijuana via breast milk will test positive in urine screens for long periods (2-3 weeks).
One study (Astley and Little, 1990) found that exposure to marijuana through their mother's milk during the first month of life resulted in decreased motor development at one year of age. In another study of 27 infants evaluated at 1 year of age who were exposed to marijuana via breastmilk (compared to 35 nonexposed infants), no significant differences were found in terms of age at weaning, growth, and mental or motor development. Follow-up of these infants has been limited.7
But I do not believe that small amounts of marijauana [sic] in milk will necessarily harm a breastfeeding infant, its just that its against the law.8
The biggest risk is that since marijuana is illegal in most places, should your child be drug tested he/she may test positive, which will likely result in an investigation and the potential exists that the child(ren) could be removed from the home. Consider the probability of your child(ren) being drug tested when choosing to use marijuana while breastfeeding.
Should I quit breastfeeding if I use marijuana?
Whether or not you should quit breastfeeding if you use marijuana is a decision that should be made between you and your family, and preferably your doctor. You should compare the potential risks of use against the benefits.
On his breastfeeding and medication forum, Dr. Tom Hale Ph.D. posts the following about marijuana use while breastfeeding:
First, the use of marijuana by a breastfeeding mother is simply stupid, there's no good reason for it, and she should not do it.
That said, from the few studies we have, MJ does not appear to be really dangerous to an infant, even though small amounts do pass into milk and are ingested by the infant. The amounts in milk are probably not clinically relevant, as they are rapidly dissipated upon absorption and transferred to storage sites in adipose tissue.
In my opinion, marijuana tainted milk is always better than formula, particularly for preterm infants who need the immunological substances found in human milk. The only time a mothers milk might not be suitable is if the mom is a terribly heavy user and immediately after she's used MJ...and I'm not even sure this is true.
The risks of breastfeeding while using marijuana should be compared to the risks of formula feeding:
The AAP (2001) has listed marijuana in Table 2: “Drugs for Which the Effect on Nursing Infants Is Unknown but May Be of Concern”, listing only one report of adverse events.
Advice similar to that given regarding cigarette smoking will reduce the exposure of the infant to passive smoke inhalation. For a mother who only occasionally uses marijuana she could prepare to have un-affected milk available for her infant and would be advised to have a carer who is not drug-affected to assist her with the infant during this time.
This is a difficult situation to counsel in as there is so little evidence of long-term detrimental effects of marijuana use on the infant, but there is considerable evidence of long-term detrimental effects of artificial baby milks on infants.
If you do advise artificial feeding, can adequate hygiene be maintained? Is the mother sufficiently responsible to mix the artificial baby milk in the appropriate strength? When she’s ‘stoned’ can she be trusted to prepare artificial baby milk and feed her baby? Can she afford to buy artificial baby milk, or will she swap to unsuitable substitutes too early? Being fed a breastmilk substitute, her infant will
suffer more ill health – will she seek adequate and timely treatment?
Are any, or all, of these factors more detrimental to the infant than continuing to be breastfed nutritionally superior milk, which has doubtful contamination? 10
Does the baby get high if the mother uses marijuana while breastfeeding?
Studies have not shown that breastfed infants/children get "high" when a mother uses marijuana while breastfeeding.
THC is indeed stored in adipose tissues in humans, but it only transfers to human milk. While the Milk/Plasma ratio is high , there's still very little in the plasma compartment, it only leaks slowly out of adipose tissue into the plasma compartment. This is probably why the studies thus far have not found 'clinical' effects in breastfed infants, there's simply too little in milk.11
Sure marijuana will continue to leach out of the mothers' adipose tissue for weeks, but those levels in milk are probably subclinical and would not bother "neuropsychologically" an infant.
They would make the infant drug-screen-positive...but this doesn't mean levels are even close to 'clinical'. Remember, you can smoke marijuana, have clinical ranges for a few hours, but the adipose tissue is filled with marijuana and will leak this out for many days...even though it has NO clinical effect on the individual.
And yes, the infant will be drug-screen-positive...but this doesn't mean the infant is having clinical effects from the drug at all.
I think is is safe to breastfeed 24 hours after exposure to marijuana. Yes, the infant will get nanoquantities of THC, but it will not have a clinical effect on the infant.12
How can I reduce the harm from smoking marijuana?
Just as most experts agree that occasional or moderate use of marijuana is innocuous, they also agree that excessive use can be harmful. Research shows that the two major risks of excessive marijuana use are:
1. respiratory disease due to smoking and
2. accidental injuries due to impairment.
Marijuana and Smoking:A recent survey by the Kaiser Permanente Center found that daily marijuana-only smokers have a 19% higher rate of respiratory complaints than non-smokers.(1) These findings were not unexpected, since it has long been known that, aside from its psychoactive ingredients, marijuana smoke contains virtually the same toxic gases and carcinogenic tars as tobacco. Human studies have found that pot smokers suffer similar kinds of respiratory damage as tobacco smokers, putting them at greater risk of bronchitis, sore throat, respiratory inflammation and infections.(2)
Although there has not been enough epidemiological work to settle the matter definitively, it is widely suspected that marijuana smoking causes cancer. Studies have found apparently pre-cancerous cell changes in pot smokers.(3) Some cancer specialists have reported a higher-than-expected incidence of throat, neck and tongue cancer in younger, marijuana-only smokers.(4) A couple of cases have been fatal. While it has not been conclusively proven that marijuana smoking causes lung cancer, the evidence is highly suggestive. According to Dr. Donald Tashkin of UCLA, the leading expert on marijuana smoking(5):
"Although more information is certainly needed, sufficient data have already been accumulated concerning the health effects of marijuana to warrant counseling by physicians against the smoking of marijuana as an important hazard to health." Fortunately, the hazards of marijuana smoking can be reduced by various strategies:
1. use of higher-potency cannabis, which can be smoked in smaller quantities,
2. use of waterpipes and other smoke reduction technologies,(6) and
3. ingesting pot orally instead of smoking it.13
The best method is to use a vaporizer.
What is a vaporizer?
A vaporizer is an object that heats marijuana instead of burning it, so that the THC is converted into water vapor instead of smoke, eliminating the carcinogens that are inhaled with smoking.
Vaporizers work by using a gentle heat instead of flame to allow you to inhale marijuana’s active ingredients, THC and CBN. When heated to the temperature range of 180-200° C (356° - 392° F), the marijuana will actually release THC and CBN without burning the plant (which is hard on your lungs). This vapor appears as a thin mist which is ready to be smoked breathed in. This mist is much more potent than smoke. It tastes better too! Smoking the marijuana with a flame can generate temperatures of over 1200 degrees!14
There are different types of vaporizers, ranging from solar powered to electric, low cost to high cost. When purchasing a vaporizer, make sure to do some research, keeping in mind what your specific needs are.
Though each model operates differently, the process is similar. Below is a video of one model, the Volcano, in operation:
You can purchase one at a local head shop or find one online:
If you live in the U.S.A. you can view the marijuana laws for each state on the NORML website.
In Canada, the criminal law is under the jurisdiction of the federal government – which (technically) means that drug laws are uniform across the country. In particular, marijuana is classified as an illegal drug through its inclusion in Schedule II of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Possession (section 4), trafficking (section 5), importing/exporting (section 6), and production (section 7) are all covered by the CDSA.
Of course, enforcement of the Criminal Code is subject to the discretion of local police and judges. Given the number of legal challenges made against the prohibition in the past decade, along with overwhelming public support for recreational use, marijuana smoking has been largely tolerated by the police and the courts. Nonetheless, the prohibition is still legally binding and, should they choose to, police officers may enforce the law.15
Currently, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Alaska, Hawaii, Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Michigan, Vermont, Maine, Rhode Island, Maryland and New Jersey have medical marijuana laws enacted.16 Washington D.C. has also recently passed legislation which is currently in a 30 congressional review period. 30
What are my legal rights?
Think carefully about your words, movement, body language, and emotions.
Don't get into an argument with the police.
Remember, anything you say or do can be used against you.
Keep your hands where the police can see them.
Don't run. Don't touch any police officer.
Don't resist even if you believe you are innocent.
Don't complain on the scene or tell the police they're wrong or that you're going to file a complaint.
Do not make any statements regarding the incident. Ask for a lawyer immediately upon your arrest.
Remember officers' badge and patrol car numbers.
Write down everything you remember ASAP.
Try to find witnesses and their names and phone numbers.
If you are injured, take photographs of the injuries as soon as possible, but make sure you seek medical attention first.
If you feel your rights have been violated, file a written complaint with police department's internal affairs division or civilian complaint board.
1. What you say to the police is always important. What you say can be used against you, and it can give the police an excuse to arrest you, especially if you bad-mouth a police officer.
2. You must show your driver's license and registration when stopped in a car. Otherwise, you don't have to answer any questions if you are detained or arrested, with one important exception. The police may ask for your name if you have been properly detained, and you can be arrested in some states for refusing to give it. If you reasonably fear that your name is incriminating, you can claim the right to remain silent, which may be a defense in case you are arrested anyway.
3. You don't have to consent to any search of yourself, your car or your house. If you DO consent to a search, it can affect your rights later in court. If the police say they have a search warrant, ASK TO SEE IT.
4. Do not interfere with, or obstruct the police -- you can be arrested for it.
IF YOU ARE STOPPED FOR QUESTIONING
1. It's not a crime to refuse to answer questions, but refusing to answer can make the police suspicious about you. If you are asked to identify yourself, see paragraph 2 above.
2. Police may "pat-down" your clothing if they suspect a concealed weapon. Don't physically resist, but make it clear that you don't consent to any further search.
3. Ask if you are under arrest. If you are, you have a right to know why.
4. Don't bad-mouth the police officer or run away, even if you believe what is happening is unreasonable. That could lead to your arrest.
IF YOU'RE STOPPED IN YOUR CAR
1. Upon request, show them your driver's license, registration, and proof of insurance. In certain cases, your car can be searched without a warrant as long as the police have probable cause. To protect yourself later, you should make it clear that you do not consent to a search. It is not lawful for police to arrest you simply for refusing to consent to a search.
2. If you're given a ticket, you should sign it; otherwise you can be arrested. You can always fight the case in court later.
3. If you're suspected of drunk driving (DWI) and refuse to take a blood, urine or breath test, your driver's license may be suspended.
IF YOU'RE ARRESTED OR TAKEN TO A POLICE STATION
1. You have the right to remain silent and to talk to a lawyer before you talk to the police. Tell the police nothing except your name and address. Don't give any explanations, excuses or stories. You can make your defense later, in court, based on what you and your lawyer decide is best.
2. Ask to see a lawyer immediately. If you can't pay for a lawyer, you have a right to a free one, and should ask the police how the lawyer can be contacted. Don't say anything without a lawyer.
3. Within a reasonable time after your arrest, or booking, you have the right to make a local phone call: to a lawyer, bail bondsman, a relative or any other person. The police may not listen to the call to the lawyer.
4. Sometimes you can be released without bail, or have bail lowered. Have your lawyer ask the judge about this possibility. You must be taken before the judge on the next court day after arrest.
5. Do not make any decisions in your case until you have talked with a lawyer.
IN YOUR HOME
1. If the police knock and ask to enter your home, you don't have to admit them unless they have a warrant signed by a judge.
2. However, in some emergency situations (like when a person is screaming for help inside, or when the police are chasing someone) officers are allowed to enter and search your home without a warrant.
3. If you are arrested, the police can search you and the area close by. If you are in a building, "close by" usually means just the room you are in.
We all recognize the need for effective law enforcement, but we should also understand our own rights and responsibilities -- especially in our relationships with the police. Everyone, including minors, has the right to courteous and respectful police treatment.
If your rights are violated, don't try to deal with the situation at the scene. You can discuss the matter with an attorney afterwards, or file a complaint with the Internal Affairs or Civilian Complaint Board.17
Most Americans understand that police officers sometimes need a warrant to search for information believed to be related to criminal activity. They may also be aware that, according to the exclusionary rule, evidence gained in an illegal search cannot be used to convict someone of a crime. However, in many circumstances the police do not need a warrant for a search, or for the evidence gained from a search, to be legal and used in court.
In each of the situations below, a police officer does not need a search warrant to conduct a search.
If an individual voluntarily consents (agrees to) a search, no warrant is needed. The key question in this kind of search is what counts as a voluntary agreement? In order for a consent search to be legal, the individual must be in control of the area to be searched and cannot have been pressured or tricked into agreeing to the search.
A police officer that spots something in plain view does not need a search warrant to seize the object. In order for a plain view search to be legal, the officer must be in a place he has the right to be in and the object he seizes must be plainly visible in this location.
If a suspect has been legally arrested, the police may search the defendant and the area within the defendant's immediate control. In a search incident to arrest no warrant is necessary as long as a spatial relationship exists between the defendant and the object.
Following an arrest, the police may make a protective sweep search if they reasonably believe that a dangerous accomplice may be hiding in an area near where the defendant was arrested. To do so, police are allowed to walk through a residence and complete a "cursory visual inspection" without a warrant. If evidence of or related to a criminal activity is in plain view during the search, the evidence may be legally seized.
If the police stop a car based on probable cause, they can search for objects related to the reason for the stop without obtaining a warrant. During a car search, the police are also allowed to frisk the subject for weapons, even without a warrant if they have reasonable suspicion that the suspects may be involved in illegal activities.18
Do I have to let CPS into my home?
No. You do not have to let a CPS worker into your home or answer their questions. Despite this, the CPS worker is still legally required to investigate reports of suspected child abuse or neglect. If there is a reason to believe your child is in danger and you deny access to your home and your child, the police may obtain a search warrant to enter your home and check on your child.19
How long will I test positive for marijuana?
While marijuana itself does not actually stay in the body, some of the chemicals in the drug do. THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the substance in pot that's mainly responsible for people's high, may stay in the body forever — scientists aren't exactly sure. However, THC is only detectable for a certain period of time after using marijuana or being exposed to marijuana smoke.
Compared to other controlled substances, THC is able to stay in a person's system for a relatively long period of time because it is fat-soluble. Being fat-soluble allows it to be stored in fatty tissues of various organs. From here, THC is slowly released and metabolized. This metabolite of THC is then excreted and cleared from a person's system.
In testing to see if someone has recently used pot, there are two important substances to keep in mind: THC and 9-carboxy-THC. 9-carboxy-THC is a product of the body's metabolism of THC and, more importantly, it is detectable for a longer period of time than THC is detectable. This is the reason that drug tests, namely urine tests, look for 9-carboxy-THC.
Many of the following numbers are estimates. The actual amount of time that these substances are detectable in a person's body depends on several factors, including how much pot is used, how often a person uses it, and the rate of his/her metabolism of the substance.
‡ Some private companies may use hair tests to detect possible marijuana use. Positive hair test results have been found to be unreliable.
* Frequent users are defined as people who use marijuana several times per week, if not more often.
** Infrequent users are those who use marijuana seldom enough that THC and/or its metabolite are no longer detectable before their next use. In essence, these users do not use pot often enough to allow for the tested substances to build-up from one use to another.
† The detection period for 9-carboxy-THC in urine can be as long as 3 months in extremely heavy users.20
How do I beat a drug test?
While there is no totally foolproof way to beat a drug test, there are many methods people use with varying results, and many methods that simply do not work no matter how many people tell you they swear by them.
(note: the author of this FAQ has tried none of these suggestions and does not guarantee they will work and/or not cause you harm. Use with caution.)
Can I test positive on a drug test from second hand marijuana smoke?
It is very unlikely that second hand marijuana exposure will lead to a positive drug test. Drug tests typically look for levels that are high enough to rule out false positives from something like second hand exposure.27 The cutoff most commonly used is 50 ng/ml 2829 Second hand exposure, depending upon how much was absorbed into the body, could possibly result in a positive on a drug test, but it would most likely be below the cutoff that is considered a "presumptive positive".
Does marijuana kill braincells?
No, this is a long discredited myth. See this thread for the full story regarding the methods used in the original study.
Does marijuana fight cancer?
Yes, studies are showing that not only does marijuana help ease cancer symptoms, it actually fights the cancer itself.
The active ingredient in marijuana cuts tumor growth in common lung cancer in half and significantly reduces the ability of the cancer to spread, say researchers at Harvard University who tested the chemical in both lab and mouse studies. 21
The active ingredient in marijuana may help fight brain tumors, a new study suggests. 22
Fortunately, in the past 10 years scientists overseas have generously picked up where U.S. researchers so abruptly left off, reporting that cannabinoids can halt the spread of numerous cancer cells -- including prostate cancer23, breast cancer24, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer 25, and in one human clinical trial, brain cancer.
The active ingredient delta -9-THC crosses human placenta Suggested possible association between heavy marijuana use in pregnancy and preterm deliveries dysfunctional labor, precipitate labor, meconium staining.
This is essentially true, in lab testing...mind you the testing is done with single celled organisms in a petrie dish...in reality when you consume delta -9-thc the body metabolizes it into a secondary chemical called 11-nor-9 carboxy THC. In a mammal THIS would be the chemical that would cross the placenta, not the delta-9 (which is like the chemical straight from the leaf). 11-nor-9 is actually non-psychoactive (so your fetus is not "getting high") and a powerful anti-inflamatory and analgesic.
I would be interested to see a comparison between the effects of marijuana on a fetus and a breastfed baby and the effects of anti-depressants on a fetus and a breastfed baby. Got anything like that in your database God?
Quoting mamacj:“ I would be interested to see a comparison between the effects of marijuana on a fetus and a breastfed ... [snip!] ... baby and the effects of anti-depressants on a fetus and a breastfed baby. Got anything like that in your database God?”
I do not but I can look into it and see what, if anything, is available.
Quoting God:“ I do not but I can look into it and see what, if anything, is available. C.”
Thanks! I haven't specifically looked at the two side by side. I've found getting any concrete and specific information about marijuana and pregnancy/breastfeeding is pretty hard. Most of it is just repeating the same 3 studies over and over again.
God I might have missed this but a key thing is to remember, what you say can be used against you BUT what you say CANNOT be used to your advantage. If you use it for your defense it's considered hearsay and cannot hold up in court.